Virtual excursion on the Balakhna

Home of Nicholay J.  LatukhinMonuments of urban development in Balakhna
late XVIII - early XX centuries
(objects of public  and industrial purpose)

Hello dear friends!

We'll now take a virtual tour of one of the oldest cities of the Volga and Nizhny Novgorod region - Balakhna. All the buildings Balakhna in like any other old Russian cities can be divided into five main groups:

  1. City Counciladministrative buildings;
  2. church buildings (churches, chapels, monasteries);
  3. industrial and manufactured establishments and corps;
  4. educational and charitable institutions (schools, colleges, houses of charity, etc.);
  5. dwelling (private) home.

But we will focus only on those architectural monuments of antiquity Balakhna, which are office buildings, industrial buildings, and educational and charitable institutions, built in the late XVIII century. - beginning of XX century.

Home of SerebryakovSettlement on the site of the modern city Balakhna arose, probably in the XII-XIV centuries. Balakhna city is in 1536 when they started to build a tree-earthen fort, which was completely burned in 1730. Until the middle of the XVIII century. Balakhna preserved medieval layout: an intricate network of labyrinthine old streets and alley, with one small square, numerous wooden churches. Dominants were building - the fortres and numerous salt marshes to the pipes, salt-pan, barns and warehouses of wood. Since the end of the XVIII century. county town Balakhna began to radically restructure , which was associated with the reformist activities of Empress Catherine II, who gave orders in provincial and district towns indiscriminately demolish building, designing, straight, broad streets and put the house on stone basements or ground floor.

Balakhna' prisonNow consider the administrative Balakhna monuments.

In the center front of the school № 6 is a two-story brick building. It houses: City Council, council, government offices and City Bank. It was built in the late XVIII century. at Cathedral Square near the Ascension Cathedral - the spiritual center of the Balakhna County. Now - this is house number 1 to Engels Street, where there are opticians shop, pharmacies and other venues. Next to this historic site is one more two-story stone building, which houses the post office and fire station.  And here was formerly a fire station and military barracks. The building was built in XIX century. and subsequently rebuilt several times.

Town manor of   Alexander A. KhudyakovIn the building the police in the district formerly in NiGRES - building zemstvo Balakhna' district. There's going to meetings, and members of the council in session. Head of the zemstvo assembly and council was a district marshal of the nobility. Over the years, this elected position occupied Nicholay J. Latukhin, Mikhail I. Grinevich, Peter A. Alexandrov, Peter B. Sheremetiev. This two-story brick house was built in 1825 by a nobleman, a hero of the Napoleonic Wars in 1805-1811, N. J. Latukhin. His daughter Anna married a nobleman, MI Grinevitch. They had no children and after their death (Mikhail died in 1868, and Anna N. in the 70s. XIX century). house became the Balakhna Zemstvo. This monument with a front porch with a balcony overlooking the main street of the city and into the courtyard (the central balcony, unfortunately, not preserved), and remembers the famous Nizhny Novgorod merchant millionaire NA Bugrov, and the last of the old of Nizhny Novgorod genus Sheremetev nephew the famous "white" General, hero of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878., of owner of a beautiful castle in the village Yurino Petr B. Sheremetev.

Home of ZelenikhinThe administrative buildings is the building is Balakhna prison, which now houses a branch of the regional archives. Construction began in 1901. Other buildings were built in the 40s of XX century. Even in modern premises buildings remained prison cells, the thick doors with bars  that dark cell. Even in modern premises buildings been preserved prison cells, the thick door grilles and door-eyed, dark cell.

Manufacturing and industrial buildings from this period in Balakhna remained very small.

In the XIX century. in Balakhna were developed following productions:

  • Home of AleksandrovSalt production;
  • Brick, tile (izrazets), pottery;
  • Sawmill production;
  • Shipbuilding;
  • Refineries production;
  • Rope production;
  • Dyeing production;
  • Blacksmith;
  • Bell-production, and others.

Plotnikov  homeHowever, industrial extraction salt in the 70s. XIX century was halted. Varnita destroyed, abandoned pipes. Currently, the bank of the Volga remained only three pipes for lifting brine, through which the land was mined from the depths of brine.

However, in the XIX century. continued construction of ships, which were produced in the Volga backwaters: near the houses of merchants Plotnikov and Alexander A. Khudyakov. These buildings were built in the 50's and 80's. XIX century and a unique monument, samples of urban estates.

The only real industrial buildings constructed during this period is the building that now houses the club of "Poligraphkarton" (cardboard factory). This one-story brick building was built in the late 70's and 80's. XIX century Kirschbaum merchant under cooperage plant. This factory made barrels for an oil refinery VI Ragozin. The company was the Ragozin first plant in Russia, where the produced oil. In 1905 the building passed to the bell-masters Charyshnikov. It was cast church bells 1,000 pounds of weight. The plant was closed in 1926 and housed in a building under construction workshops cardboard factory.

Salt wellFor industrial buildings can be attributed printing house F. Volkov (Revolutsii Avenue) - a small one-story wooden building, square in plan. Balakhna merchant Fedot P. Volkov was with I.P. Schepetilnikov saw mill owner, director Balakhna city bank. In his print shop printed materials Balakhna district zemstvo assembly, and other small pamphlets, which are now a valuable source for the history of the city.

Buildings that housed schools, in Balakhna preserved quite a lot. The most interesting of them is located on Lenin Street (formerly Nicholaevskaya), now in its offices magistrates. Prior to 2000 there was an eight-year school number 1. It was built one-story under the district school about 1816 . At the beginning of the XX century was attached to the building, 2nd floor. Legend has it that this place was located siege court of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, military commander of II National Home Guard 1611-1612 gg.

Salt wellAround the same time on the merchant Pavel Fedorovich Minin, probably, a descendant of  Fedor's brother Kuzma Minin was a wooden two-story building for the parish school Pokrovsky Pokrovsky Monastery (Revolutsii Avenue).

At the turn of XIX-XX centuries. built and other men's college (since training was split): Znamensky and Hudyakovsky (1916). If they were one-story, the women's college (1911), which was called Stolypinsky, was built two-story and brick. Money allocated for its construction Balakhna council. On the ground floor there is a school lace-makers (lace-making was one of the most developed industries in Balakhna and county).

Charitable institution, or the House of Mercy, where lived out his life the old people who have no relatives were in Balakhna and at the beginning of the XIX century, but their premises were made of wood and were destroyed over time. Extant brick two-story building on Engels Street (formerly Malaya Rozhdestvenskaya Street), which houses the home believers at the end of the XIX century. It was built on money collegiate assessor Alexander Iosifovich Dobronravov. He resided in Gorodets, but owned in Balakhna houses. And one house, he gave Balakhna urban society that lived there homeless elderly. These are the philanthropists were in the old days!

Of course in Balakhna many interesting monuments. During one excursion you will not see everything about everything and not tell. But we can say that Balakhna may be of interest not only for visitors but for residents themselves.

Welcome to Balakhna!

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This article in Russian:
http://www.balamus.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=65:virt&catid=46:street&Itemid=70