Balakhna' Shipbuilding

Balakhna - a city more than once in its history change their economic face. Balakhna' land located in the middle Volga route between Gorodtsov and Nizhny Novgorod, where there was abundance of forests, and intensive development of crafts, produce goods that must be transported in large lots, became the center of the wooden shipbuilding. The position of the city the path of the forest along the Volga River is largely favored the development of Balakhna wooden shipbuilding.

Once no longer be profitable salt production, shipbuilding began to play most prominent and important role in the industrial life of Balakhna.

StrugNumerous types of ships on the Volga River is known in the XII century: kerbat, pavoska, boat, wuchang, strug and many others. Strug' were being built here - a small flat-bottomed vessels, had "substantial capacity plane and one mast, one sail, which sailed when the wind blew the stern, when the wind is contrary, then floated on a 16-oars." Plows had a length of 20 to 45 meters and a width of 4 to 10 meters and used mainly on rivers and lakes.

Construction of a wooden navy in Balakhna especially intensively developed in the middle of the XVI century, after Ivan IV the Terrible in October 1552 conquered Kazan, and in 1554-1556 years subjugated Astrakhan Khanate. In 1634-1636 years. Balakhna masters shipbuilders built the ship "Friedrich", the first Russian ship. In Moscow, arrived Dutch Ambassador Otto Bryugman to create a trading company. In December 1634 Otto Bryugman on behalf of Frederick I «perpetrate trade agreement" with the Moscow boyars of early 10-year-old Dutch trade with Persia. Volga and the Caspian Sea was the most convenient, cheap and short route for trade with Persia.

The ship "Frederick" was built by skilled craftsmen Balakhna in the short term. The length of the ship was 36.5 meters, width - 12 meters, draft - 2 meters. The three mast sailing ship gave a good move. In the case of the absence of wind were adjusted 24 oars. In case of attack the ship was armed with guns. In the holds of ships were built sections, which could accommodate the team and the officials of the embassy. In other compartments stored food, water, and the nucleus for the guns.

In July 1636, "Friedrich" under the Dutch flag raised the sails and weighed anchor. On the "Frederick" were 38 foreigners of different ranks, 12 officers and sailors, 30 Scots, who were on the Russian military, six Russian carpenters. In total 86 people.

In September 1636 the ship arrived safely in Astrakhan. Located in Astrakhan, Persian, Indian, Arab merchants, as well as residents of the city were delighted with the fantastic handsome ship. Rumors about the amazing ship reached the Shah of Persia before the Dutch embassy arrived in Persia. The ship "Frederick" was the Volga, abounding in shoals, and much later sank in the Caspian Sea.

During the reign of Peter I, starting in 1695, Balakhna become one of the centers of the construction of sailing warships to the Sea of Azov campaign. The decree on the construction of the fleet was published in January 1696. Construction of the vessels had been deployed on numerous shipyards Balakhna County of Katunki up Kerzhenets up along the left bank and in the Balakhna. Shipyards in Balakhna were mostly located in Kubentsevo, as well as between the village  of the Kuznetsk and the grove Paracha.

While in 1695 in Nizhny Novgorod, Petr I established the shipyard for the construction of a "new style" of ships. The king gave the design of a new type high-speed vessel, calling him a "Raice-Schiff." These words in the mouths of boatmen turned the word "Ras'shiva". Pine forests gave an excellent material for building ships.

At Balakhna rope worked a lot of genuine masters aimed here to study the construction of military ships sailing. To teach Balakhna carpenters to build new ships were sent to the master-foreigners.

Legend has it that along with his associate Alexander Menshikov, "with an ax in his hand," worked at the shipyard Balakhna himself Tsar Peter I the Great.

Emblem of the city BalakhnaBalakhna famed for its ras'shivs, and Belyana's, and the barge's. Ras'shiva were called sailing vessels under 16 meters in length, rises to 20,000 pouds of cargo. At the stern they had "kazenka" - room for cargo. "Kazenka" elegant house was made with the curved roof, with carvings on the walls and shutters. Borders cut on the top side, richly decorated forage vessel. The top of a tall tower adorned with a huge carved sun with a human face. Sails and flags of ships were decked picturesque scenes painted on the sea myths.
Subsequent years showed persistence of the shipbuilding business for Balakhna shipyards. Balakhna coming to an end the first quarter of XVIII century. could rightly be called the capital wooden shipbuilding of the Volga.
From the middle of the XVIII century is preserved galley "Tver", decorated with carved ship, on which Catherine II in 1767 traveled to the Volga.

August 16th, 1781 at the behest of the Empress Catherine II in Balakhna, as in many other cities, was approved by the emblem of the city. It was designed as a shield in the upper part of which was located in Nizhny Novgorod coat of arms (Noble proudly walking deer horns and hooves are black), and at the bottom - the "two in a silver box, kokoro, meaning a notable production of ships." Kokora (knee) - bracket curved wooden ship kit was used for its manufacture of the lower part of the tree from the root. It symbolized the notable shipbuilding.

BelyanaThe period of greatest prosperity in shipbuilding Balakhna can be considered as the first half of the XIX century. The county at this time built up to 100 barges per year, not counting the other vessels. In the 60's. XIX century Balakhna belongs to one of the first places in the construction barges. At Balakhna shipyard built each year from 100 to 300 barges. On the construction of barges and steamers were employed 3000-5000 workers - skilled carpenters.

Wealthy shipbuilders in Balakhna were Isakov, Plotnikov, Khudyakov, brothers Redozubov, Bednyagin, Polyakov. Extensive experience in building barges of different designs are passed from generation to generation over many generations.

Barges built a 40 sazhen long and 5 sazhen wide, 17 chetvert high, and 12 chetvert up to the waterline. This barge was able to accommodate up to 17,000 pouds of cargo.

BelyanaSince the beginning of construction of ships with a steam engine Balakhna not lost its importance. The first steam ship "Perm" was launched in the summer of 1845. Next up was built steamship "Kama." In 1850 the company "Mercury" was built two large steam-ship - "Kozma Minin" and "Dmitry Pozharsky."

In 1846 a wealthy businessman came Balakhna Benardaki nobleman, to build a shipyard metal shipbuilding. He appealed to the municipal authorities to allocate land for the shipyard. In 1847 he was allowed to establish a shipyard at an abandoned wasteland near the village Sormovo and Myshyakovka who were on the outskirts of Balakhna County. Benardaki bought stationed there since 1849 repair shops tow winding Volga Shipping Company and converted them into a huge (for that time), a plant with 2,000 workers.
Already in its first year Sormovsky plant launches the first two 60-horsepower tug-boat "Dawn" and "Strela" for the Volga-Kama Shipping Company. Only in the 50s. XIX century. Plant gave the country more than 60 steam-ships. Here were built the first Russian metal barges (1850-1852). Hard work and talent factory workers in 1903 was built the world's first passenger steam-ship. In 1958, the plant "Red Sormovo" was built ship "Balakhna."

But with the advent of steel ships in the production of wooden barges Balakhna lasted only until the beginning of the XX century. The fishery gradually began to fade, and soon ceased to exist.

Marina A. Gryaznova,
research worker "Balakhna Museum Complex of History and Art Complex"

Based on the book, Galina D. Shulyndina "The city unique Balakhna"

 

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Town manor of the merchant Alexander A. Khudyakov

Town manor of the merchant A.A. KhudyakovOne of the unique structures Balakhna - Town Manor on Karl Marx Street, the former Naberezhnaya, built in 70-80s. XIX century merchant, shipbuilder Alexander A. Khudyakov. The farmstead includes a main 2-storey house, single storey stone outbuilding (farm buildings), stone gates, wooden barn, garden, now more like a overgrown park. The history of the estate is rather remarkable, it reflected the vicissitudes of the turbulent events of the last century and a half. 

Alexander Khudyakov was born August 17, 1845 in the family of Alexander Ivanovich Balakhna petty bourgeois and Lyubov Ivanovna, baptized in the Church of the Resurrection. Their house stood on the shore of a small lake Babi, the confluence of the Volga River is not large Netecha, which was very convenient for the shipbuilding craft what many engaged in Balakhna. Volga trade brought entrepreneurs Balakhna a good profit. The most successful of the local merchants moved to Nizhny Novgorod, and the most far-sighted not break their ties with their native Balakhna, with house and yard, and here and there. The activities of Alexander Khudyakov-senior knows very little.

The Executive Office of AA KhudyakovThe documents report that in 1883, to its pier in Balakhna molested "every day" 2 boat, probably with the goods. At this time, Alexander Jr. was already the 2nd merchant guild and was a member of Balakhna City Duma. In 1894-98 he. He has held elective office the mayor. In 1893 the family Khudyakov tragedy: the age of 5 years died only son Alexei. This is probably the main reason that the family left Balakhna which were concerned with a lot of sad memories. 

At the beginning of the XX century AA Khudyakov and his wife moved to live permanently in Nizhny Novgorod in the mansion on Malaya Pokrovskaya Street (now the house number 8). And in Balakhna house Khudyakov on Nabereznaya Street settled older people without their homes, mostly clergy. So the mansion was an almshouse. The central hall on the second floor, whose windows open to wonderful landscape of the Volga, was halls for praying. Old-timers who visited the house, talked about what a lot of icons fill the space left wall of the hall.

Literary and Music RoomThe first months of the October Revolution took place in Balakhna peacefully enough, but in 1918 began the nationalization of the abandoned buildings of the owners. One of the first nationalization of the mansion has undergone Khudyakov, which housed district an extraordinary Committee (KGB). Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union began to be worn around town rumors about how many citizens were shot Balakhna in a remote, overgrown park Khudyakov mansion.

After 2 years of continued story mansion as a charitable institution. In 1920-1921 was opened an orphanage for children orphaned by the Soviet state wards. Subsequently, in the early 1930s house had been "reclassified" a kindergarten, in which capacity he remained until 2001, when the mansion was given Balakhna regional museum.

The front oak staircaseMuseum workers have long dreamed about this house, which in itself, even without exposure, is a unique "exhibit". And now the dream has come true, but the obstacle, as always, has risen a large, "BUT". The entire estate, and in the first place, the main house, as noted by the architect, the director of "Proektrestavratsiya" (Nizhny Novgorod), Mrs. Sundieva, demanded "the immediate restoration". Considerable damage had log walls on the second floor and metal roof and eaves, floors and ceilings, oak staircase. However, professionals - architects was surprised to have stated that the general condition of the building, "corresponds to the ornate facades and is in satisfactory condition"!

Museum workers began to develop plans to museumfication this historic monument. Museum as curator of the estate a lot of work not only for the restoration and museumfication, but also to promote the monument. Significant place in the museumfication estate will occupy exhibit devoted Balakhna's Shipbuilding, which was engaged in a builder of mansion AA Khudyakov. New modern exposition will include exhibits, original: photographs and documents  shipbuilders, antique carpentry tools: adzes, two-handled saw, scraper, anchors, barges and ship models - the tractor. All of this will be integrated into a single unit via computer multimedia installation. Additional exposure will add charm to a convenient location on the banks of the Volga manor. It should be noted that the introduction of the estate into a museum and tourist traffic will determine the value of the whole block the embankment as a point of cultural activities.

Lady's bedchamber

A series of rooms on the second floor, the ceilings are decorated with stucco plafonds, hardwood floors inlaid, Dutch oven with shaped pottery and fireplace, faced with polished black stone, is a unique foundation for the establishment expositions and exhibits that reflect the lives of the urban middle class and wealthy merchants in the late XIX - XX cc.

Do not be left without attention and a stable manor park, where there are century-old linden tree, Remember personal Khudyakov. It's safe to say that there was only one Balakhna this horse stable Khudyakov, which is the last such real monument in the late XIX. It is therefore imperative to design and survey and restoration works not only on the main house, but on the whole complex estates. 

Manor AA Khudyakov is the subject of multi-purpose. The aim of the project on its museumfication - through the creation of exhibitions to show the diversity of its activity, including industrial component, break the stereotype estates only as a residential park and facility history and culture. We would like to reborn Balakhna estate AA Khudyakov was the brightest star in the constellation of the Volga estates, standing out among them, neither architecture nor the nobility of his master, but some of his "special charm to". 

 

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Virtual excursion on the Balakhna

Home of Nicholay J.  LatukhinMonuments of urban development in Balakhna
late XVIII - early XX centuries
(objects of public  and industrial purpose)

Hello dear friends!

We'll now take a virtual tour of one of the oldest cities of the Volga and Nizhny Novgorod region - Balakhna. All the buildings Balakhna in like any other old Russian cities can be divided into five main groups:

  1. City Counciladministrative buildings;
  2. church buildings (churches, chapels, monasteries);
  3. industrial and manufactured establishments and corps;
  4. educational and charitable institutions (schools, colleges, houses of charity, etc.);
  5. dwelling (private) home.

But we will focus only on those architectural monuments of antiquity Balakhna, which are office buildings, industrial buildings, and educational and charitable institutions, built in the late XVIII century. - beginning of XX century.

Home of SerebryakovSettlement on the site of the modern city Balakhna arose, probably in the XII-XIV centuries. Balakhna city is in 1536 when they started to build a tree-earthen fort, which was completely burned in 1730. Until the middle of the XVIII century. Balakhna preserved medieval layout: an intricate network of labyrinthine old streets and alley, with one small square, numerous wooden churches. Dominants were building - the fortres and numerous salt marshes to the pipes, salt-pan, barns and warehouses of wood. Since the end of the XVIII century. county town Balakhna began to radically restructure , which was associated with the reformist activities of Empress Catherine II, who gave orders in provincial and district towns indiscriminately demolish building, designing, straight, broad streets and put the house on stone basements or ground floor.

Balakhna' prisonNow consider the administrative Balakhna monuments.

In the center front of the school № 6 is a two-story brick building. It houses: City Council, council, government offices and City Bank. It was built in the late XVIII century. at Cathedral Square near the Ascension Cathedral - the spiritual center of the Balakhna County. Now - this is house number 1 to Engels Street, where there are opticians shop, pharmacies and other venues. Next to this historic site is one more two-story stone building, which houses the post office and fire station.  And here was formerly a fire station and military barracks. The building was built in XIX century. and subsequently rebuilt several times.

Town manor of   Alexander A. KhudyakovIn the building the police in the district formerly in NiGRES - building zemstvo Balakhna' district. There's going to meetings, and members of the council in session. Head of the zemstvo assembly and council was a district marshal of the nobility. Over the years, this elected position occupied Nicholay J. Latukhin, Mikhail I. Grinevich, Peter A. Alexandrov, Peter B. Sheremetiev. This two-story brick house was built in 1825 by a nobleman, a hero of the Napoleonic Wars in 1805-1811, N. J. Latukhin. His daughter Anna married a nobleman, MI Grinevitch. They had no children and after their death (Mikhail died in 1868, and Anna N. in the 70s. XIX century). house became the Balakhna Zemstvo. This monument with a front porch with a balcony overlooking the main street of the city and into the courtyard (the central balcony, unfortunately, not preserved), and remembers the famous Nizhny Novgorod merchant millionaire NA Bugrov, and the last of the old of Nizhny Novgorod genus Sheremetev nephew the famous "white" General, hero of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878., of owner of a beautiful castle in the village Yurino Petr B. Sheremetev.

Home of ZelenikhinThe administrative buildings is the building is Balakhna prison, which now houses a branch of the regional archives. Construction began in 1901. Other buildings were built in the 40s of XX century. Even in modern premises buildings remained prison cells, the thick doors with bars  that dark cell. Even in modern premises buildings been preserved prison cells, the thick door grilles and door-eyed, dark cell.

Manufacturing and industrial buildings from this period in Balakhna remained very small.

In the XIX century. in Balakhna were developed following productions:

  • Home of AleksandrovSalt production;
  • Brick, tile (izrazets), pottery;
  • Sawmill production;
  • Shipbuilding;
  • Refineries production;
  • Rope production;
  • Dyeing production;
  • Blacksmith;
  • Bell-production, and others.

Plotnikov  homeHowever, industrial extraction salt in the 70s. XIX century was halted. Varnita destroyed, abandoned pipes. Currently, the bank of the Volga remained only three pipes for lifting brine, through which the land was mined from the depths of brine.

However, in the XIX century. continued construction of ships, which were produced in the Volga backwaters: near the houses of merchants Plotnikov and Alexander A. Khudyakov. These buildings were built in the 50's and 80's. XIX century and a unique monument, samples of urban estates.

The only real industrial buildings constructed during this period is the building that now houses the club of "Poligraphkarton" (cardboard factory). This one-story brick building was built in the late 70's and 80's. XIX century Kirschbaum merchant under cooperage plant. This factory made barrels for an oil refinery VI Ragozin. The company was the Ragozin first plant in Russia, where the produced oil. In 1905 the building passed to the bell-masters Charyshnikov. It was cast church bells 1,000 pounds of weight. The plant was closed in 1926 and housed in a building under construction workshops cardboard factory.

Salt wellFor industrial buildings can be attributed printing house F. Volkov (Revolutsii Avenue) - a small one-story wooden building, square in plan. Balakhna merchant Fedot P. Volkov was with I.P. Schepetilnikov saw mill owner, director Balakhna city bank. In his print shop printed materials Balakhna district zemstvo assembly, and other small pamphlets, which are now a valuable source for the history of the city.

Buildings that housed schools, in Balakhna preserved quite a lot. The most interesting of them is located on Lenin Street (formerly Nicholaevskaya), now in its offices magistrates. Prior to 2000 there was an eight-year school number 1. It was built one-story under the district school about 1816 . At the beginning of the XX century was attached to the building, 2nd floor. Legend has it that this place was located siege court of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, military commander of II National Home Guard 1611-1612 gg.

Salt wellAround the same time on the merchant Pavel Fedorovich Minin, probably, a descendant of  Fedor's brother Kuzma Minin was a wooden two-story building for the parish school Pokrovsky Pokrovsky Monastery (Revolutsii Avenue).

At the turn of XIX-XX centuries. built and other men's college (since training was split): Znamensky and Hudyakovsky (1916). If they were one-story, the women's college (1911), which was called Stolypinsky, was built two-story and brick. Money allocated for its construction Balakhna council. On the ground floor there is a school lace-makers (lace-making was one of the most developed industries in Balakhna and county).

Charitable institution, or the House of Mercy, where lived out his life the old people who have no relatives were in Balakhna and at the beginning of the XIX century, but their premises were made of wood and were destroyed over time. Extant brick two-story building on Engels Street (formerly Malaya Rozhdestvenskaya Street), which houses the home believers at the end of the XIX century. It was built on money collegiate assessor Alexander Iosifovich Dobronravov. He resided in Gorodets, but owned in Balakhna houses. And one house, he gave Balakhna urban society that lived there homeless elderly. These are the philanthropists were in the old days!

Of course in Balakhna many interesting monuments. During one excursion you will not see everything about everything and not tell. But we can say that Balakhna may be of interest not only for visitors but for residents themselves.

Welcome to Balakhna!

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Museum of Kuzma Minin

Museum of Kuzma Minin, located in the cultural and leisure center "Moscow House" was opened November 4, 2009 to celebrate National Unity Day is a unique collection of authentic artifacts XVII - XX centuries.

The main purposes of of the museum:

  • Introduction to the history of the city Balakhna to exploit people's home guard in 1612;
  • Patriotic education of youth by the example of the heroic pages of history;
  • The establishment of cultural and business ties with the cities participating home guard;
  • Enhance cultural and historical education.

Tiles (izrazets) of Balakhna

 The museum houses a collection of archaeological, which includes objects found in burial Churkinsky on the river Zheleznitsa (a long time this place was the only monument of the Mesolithic in the Nizhny Novgorod region), on Lake Borovskое, where they found fragments of comb-ceramic and flint tools. Represented in the exhibition objects found during excavations in the territory of  Pokrovsky Monastery: fragments of pottery Russian XVI - XX centuries, fragments of tiles, antique coins. The archaeological history of the city shows an ancient origin Balakhna Usolye (Salt springs of Balakhna). The exhibition features ancient the pipe-wells extraction of salt water of the XVII century. Museum exhibits ancient weapons (checkers sword, gun, musket, iron core), the military uniforms of the XVII century (shield and helmet in the eastern work, chain mail), which is found in our ancient city. Presented in the museum weapons and uniforms of the XIX century - breastplate, sabers.

 

A special place is occupied by a unique collection of tiles (izrazets) of Balakhna XVII - XIX centuries, which differ in the grace and originality of the picture, beautiful colors and intricate shapes. Balakhna's master left posterity imperishable beauty of his art that never ceases to amaze us with their originality. Many visitors of museums in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Balakhna, Yuryevets, Puchezh, Katunki, Kostroma admire Balakhna tiles and praises unknown masters. Balakhna' glazed tiles deserve close study and research these days. Unique originality, artistic skill emal the relief makes these little-studied of glazed tiles most valuable contribution  in the universal history of art and, in particular - in the history of ceramics. 

Wax figures of K.Minin and D.M. PozharskyVisitors to the museum by Kuzma Minin can see a rare collection of icons XVIII-XIX centuries representing the artistic and historical value. This is the icon - "The Prophet Elisha," "The Prophet Moses," "The Prophet Aaron," "King Solomon" and the icons of the series, "The Passion of the Christ". The museum contains rare religious books like the Gospel in a gilded cover, Psalm XVIII century, the obituary of Trinity Church, extracts from church books of XVII century. 

Balakhna has long been famous for his piety. According Archimandrite Macarius in the XVII century the town had 50 wooden churches, and later rebuilt in the white stone (there were about 20). The museum kept the church articles, vestments of the priests XVIII - XIX centuries. 

City Balakhna - the birthplace of the great patriot of Kuzma Minin, a savior of the Fatherland. In 2010, for the celebration of the Popular Unity were purchased in St. Petersburg, . The exhibition includes paintings beginning of the XX century, depicting the heroism of the home guard and the town's history. 

About how things have changed Balakhna can be found on old photographs of the early XX century.

It is planned to further develop and promote the museum.

 

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In the streets of the old Balakhna

Church of the Savior

Most of the landmarks Balakhna concentrated in the city center, near the bus station.

Sightseeing, you can start with the five-domed Church of the Savior (street Tupolev, 3), which can be seen from the bus station to the side of the Volga. This graceful five-domed Church of bunk, decorated with tiles (izrazets). From the west bell-tower with a roof in the form of a cone. The church was built in 1668 by means of the manufacturer and merchant salt, GE Dobrynin. In 1690 the church was severely damaged by fire and was rebuilt only in the 1702-1704 years.  Restoration work was carried out in the middle of the XX century.

Traveling south on Avenue Dzerzhinsky, we find ourselves to the Sovietskaya square. It is noteworthy historical buildings to central district of the city.

Along the city market, turning left, you can go to the city park and next to the embankment. At the site of the park until 1730 there was a fortress, built in 1536 by order of Helena Glinsky, mother Tsar Ivan the Terrible. The fortress was protected by landscaped barriers - Petrovskoe Lake and the river Netecha. Park to the site of the fortress was laid in 1825, but yet still visible traces of the ancient fort embankments. 

Monument to Kuzma MininOut on the promenade, you can enjoy not only the Volga, but the ensemble of monuments of the village of Nikolo-Pogost on the opposite bank. Savior Transfiguration Church longline type (1760) as though directed upward through a smooth transition from one form of of foundation tier to the next. Beside The baroque church of Vladimir (1788). Between the churches stands a huge, visible from afar the bell tower in the style of Russian classicism beginning of the XIX century. By the way, we draw your attention directly on the Volga. Opposite Balakhna Volga has a natural width of about 600 m and the normal flow rate: in other places the influence dams. 

Let us return to the Sovietskaya square. It is worth noting here stands a monument to Kuzma Minin - native Balakhna (sculptor B. Kolobov, 1943). It is worth noting here stands a monument to Kuzma Minin Russian patriot, who was born in Balakhna (sculptor B. Kolobov, 1943). It was originally installed in the square of Minin and Pozharsky in city Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod), and opened in the years Great Patriotic War. In the 1990's. sculpture was moved to their homeland of K. Minin and its place in Nizhny Novgorod, established a new monument of O. Komov.

Pokrovsky MonasterySouth of the area - the territory of the Pokrovsky Monastery (abolished in 1783 g), which is now being revived. Here is preserved a unique architectural monument - an octagonal hipped hipped-like tower  Church of St. Nicholas (1552) (Pioneerskaya str., 3). Это один из самых ранних зданий Нижний Новгород-Поволжье. St. Nicholas Church, the oldest building in Balakhna, and after the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and throughout the region. About the time of its construction the inscription, which is preserved to white-stone block, which lays a substitute south portal. As often happened then was embedded in the foundation stone slab which has been harvested for gravestones, but something spoiled. At its field Slavic letters beautifully and confidently carved date "year 7060" - 1552 New Era. In this church, more than any other stone monuments of architecture of the XVI century hipped., maintained communication with a wooden hipped architecture. Rather remarkable form the drum head over a hipped , lined as a truncated pyramid with sloping edges inward.

Church of IntercessionThis feature is known in the northern wooden churches, but rarely seen in the stone churches. The church has emphasized the monumentality of the image, rigor and conciseness of the architectural language, the simplicity of its few details. Shater and St. Nicholas Church cupola covered with green glazed tiles, laid in the repair of 1719-1722 years. 1963-1965 years. 2009-2010. St. Nicholas Church was restored: the later accretions have been removed and attached, flat roof disassembled, separating the tent from the interior of the church.

Also interesting is standing next to St. Nicholas Church of the Intercession. It was built in the second half of XVII century. and was in steep-sided dome, which collapsed during a fire in 1680 and was replaced by a flat wooden ceiling with five decorative heads, trimmed with roofing iron. For a long time in the Church of Intercession (Prospect Revolutsii, 17) was placed museum. Exposure were natural, archaeological collections, the materials on the history of Balakhna crafts - lace-making, tile (izrazets) production, salt production, shipbuilding.

Trinity cemetery churchLet's walk down the Lenin street. Not far from the Pokrovsky monastery could be seen the dome of another monument of XVII century. - Church of the Nativity (1675) (Lenin str., 9). In the XVI-XVII centuries. this is where the convent Christmas, abolished in 1764. Its walls are traditionally broken up into three blades, each of which ends zakomara. Simple cylindrical drums completed the five cupolas helmet covered with bright green tiles. With its relatively small size of simple outlines Church of the Nativity impression calm grandeur, thanks in no small degree it contributes to contrast with the bulk of the plastically more developed, but small chapels. And in the church and the aisles are preserved iconostasis of XVIII century. Decorated with typical Baroque carvings.

Trinity cemetery church was built in 1784. The church is of the form based on the quadrangle octagonal tower is divided into two equal-width deck and covered by a cupola, decorative crowning dome. A very picturesque church leading to the brick gate with their little dome and tiled surfaces. Next to the church memorial, which opened in memory of those killed in the Great Patriotic War, people Balakhna. From Sovietskaya Square can make a trip to Pravdinsk. About 500 meters in this direction - the right one more monument to Kuzma Minin. After another 500 meters you can see the "House of Culture NiGRES" - an architectural complex built in the 1920s. At the bus stop "Kubentsovo" (after half a mile) - the left is visible Sretenskaya Church (1808), performed in the classical style.

Sretenskaya ChurchStone houses. Two stone houses, standing on both corners of the intersection of Lenin str. and the Revolutsii str. are very characteristic for the construction of the first half of the XIX century. Both is facing facades to the of the Revolutsii street. On the left - a two-story house with a center dedicated high side, with pilasters and a pediment Tuscan order. Right - one-storey house with basement, with a mezzanine. As was customary in those days, street facades are made of brick, and the side walls of the mezzanines to reduce the cost of construction made of wood.

 

 

Elena E. Latysheva
Senior Research Fellow of Balakhna' Complex of museums History and Art 

 P.S.: Sorry for my English. I would appreciate if you make the correct text. My email address isЭтот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

 

This article in Russian:
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Museum of Lace and lace collection Balakhna' Complex Museum of History and Art

Beautiful products  masters of Balakhna masters formed the basis for the collection of lace of Balakhna complex history and art museum. The collection began to take shape in the first year of the museum. At the time of its opening to visitors - November 7, 1927 - in his exposition was presented 45 the lace products. The first director of the museum and the initiator of its creation - Viktor N. Kirillov was a great lover of antiquity, the true collector. It is surprising that he, a man keenly grasped the importance of preserving ancient samples Balakhna lace. It is interesting to note that the priority plans of the head of the museum's publication skolok (technical drawings) and lace creation in Balakhna studio lace and embroidery stitch. Today the collection skolok's at the end of the 1920s of Kirillov, kept in his personal fund of the Central Archives of Nizhny Novgorod region.

The scientific description of the "lace" collection only began in the 80s. XX century. A great contribution to the formation, study and restoration of this collection over the years have made: museum director S. Filatov (1961-1980 years),  museum director Nina F. Ovechkinа (1993-1995 years), museum director Marina V. Suchkova (1997-2009 years), head of the funds Zinaida I. Galkina (1994-2004), head of the funds Svetlana V. Pukhova (2004 - 2006), researchers Lydia Volkova, Irina Zakharova, Marina Mochalova, masters of lace Lidia Vasilieva, Galina Kotova.

They tried to gather a great collection for the provincial museum. The collection includes lace individual items (80 items at the time of 2008) and dimensional lace that decorated items made of cloth. By the time of appearance in the museum collection of lace can be divided into three groups.

Group 1 - the exhibits received until 1961, referred to as "old"  (18 items). On these subjects there were no additional data. But this is the most ancient and valuable lace: a cap-volosnik, linen jacket, made in the coupling technique, an apron-zapon. All of these items date from the second half of XIX century. The names of the masters are not known.

Group 2, which consists of 30 pieces, includes lace received in the period from 1961 to 1994. At this time deliberately not looking for lace, but it was in these years, the museum received a number of unique lace items. Among them, perhaps, the oldest exhibit lace collection. This lace shawl.  A length of 3 meters long. It can be dated to the second half of XIX century. But it is made from an ancient skolok that researchers lace craft - Sophia A. Davydov, Prokopiev, Faleeva dates from the middle of XIX century. Among the exhibits in this group a unique three-meter scarves, made in the traditional weaving techniques of Balakhna, which is still in the XIX century. called "balahonsky manner". One of the scarves, for example, was made a talented unknown master of lace and belonged to the vendor of retail goods from the village Pestyaki - Praskovia Lunina. In 1975 the museum received a set of tools for making lace, the oldest master in the city Balakhna Alexandra Ivanovna Klinova.

Group 3 - More than 100 exhibits. They came to the museum over the past 13 years, marking the great public interest in folk crafts. Additional incentive to actively work with a collection of lace was the work of the Museum of Nizhny Novgorod University named after N. Lobachevsky, who in 1998 received a grant from the Russian Humanitarian Foundation and conducted ethnographic expedition to study the Balakhna lace. In 2000, the expedition made materials exhibit "Balakhna lace: Past and Present" and a scientific workshop. Employees Museum of Balakhna took an active part in these events.
In group 3 predominates dimensional lace and products, designed with lace. However, in recent years, the museum staff did not just gather lace, but also try to create some mini collections master of lace of Balakhna, which include their photos, documents and personal belongings.

Among the laces that came to the museum in recent years, we would like to highlight a wonderful scarf (shawl) of cream silk three-meter length. It was owned by Tatiana S. Varvarina. Wizard, which produced it, is unknown. Dated to exhibit the XIX-XX centuries. The exhibit is well preserved. Traditional lace for most Balakhna "klyunevy edge", leaves and flowers on long branches, large, clean work put this scarf among the best examples of classic "balahonsky manner."

Galina A. KotovaIn the XIX - early XX centuries. In addition to traditional kerchiefs were very popular and scarves. Required for their manufacture in twice the time than kerchiefs, and they were worth, respectively, at twice the price. In total, the museum's collection 4 black silk shawls. One of them was made at the end of the XIX century hereditary  master of lace Praskovya A. Kochetova. The museum is being kept a collection of objects of hereditary lace Kochetova: custom-made lace, lace-dimensional, chemise, silk skein cream thread, lace belongings.

In recent years, began to form personal collection of modern masters lace. The most significant of these is due Galina A. Kotova.

 Galina has worked at the branch lace factory Gorodets strochevyshivalnaya that existed from 1969 to Balakhna 1994. Branch headed by Lydia F. Vasilievа, who graduated from the Kirov School of lace and came to the Balakhna in 1968. Masters of lace were the heirs of this branch of the complex by the technique of execution "balahonsky manner."

XXI Century to Balakhna Museum was marked a significant intensification of the exposition, exhibition, promotional activities. In 2000 the museum was built new exhibition "Balakhna lace" in 1998, 2005, 2007 Museum has organized exhibitions of lace in the museums of Nizhniy Novgorod and the Nizhny Novgorod Region (Gorodets, Pavlovo, Semenov). 

In July 2008, Balakhna lace seen in Pärnu (Estonia) at the VIII International Exhibition of  lace. The exhibition was organized by the Municipality and the Foundation "Estonian cultural capital." Its participants were lace-makers from countries where the lace has a long tradition: Estonia, Latvia, England and Sweden. Balakhna Museum was the sole representative of Russia. The museum's director, Marina V. Suchkovа and head of the "Museum of Lace", master lace Galina Kotova managed to charm the women of Western Europe to their crafts. As written in the invitation letter organizer Eeva Talts (board member of the Society of Estonian handicrafts and folk art, president, "the Estonian Lace" at the Society of Estonian handicrafts and folk art): "... after seeing your photos on the site of Galina A. Kotova and exhibits Balakhna museum, I was struck by Balakhna lace ..." The fact that modern Western lace weave small items and a narrow lace to design women's clothing. Balakhna as has long been famous for its large things (kerchiefs, scarves, shawls). Lace goods Galina Kotova, which retained ancestral traditions "balahonsky manner," impressed by their magnitude, pure performance, the new author's intention. It's safe to say that her six-foot maroon scarf, made by her own skolok on display is unique and nothing like in the world does not exist.

Lace butterflyAt the request of Eeva Talts Galina A. Kotovа held for participants of the master class. 36 lace-makers for two days under the guidance of  Balakhna master of lace made lace butterfly (technical drawing drafted by Galina A. Kotova) and only 5 participants performed the task until the end, two Estonian women and an Englishwoman. The Swedish delegation received from Galina lace butterfly as a gift. The only inconvenience in communication - the language barrier. All communication took place in Estonian and English, but richly illustrated electronic presentation, prepared by the museum staff, showed European lace-maker Balakhna lace XIX-XX centuries. As it turned out, there are significant differences in the terminology of lace, various in different countries, different the lace elements names. So, for example, Russian lace "nasnovka" called "seed", Estonian - "leaf", an English - "almonds".

The exhibition organizers expressed confidence that the European cooperation for the development and popularization of lace-making will continue. Balakhna already received an invitation to IX show.

Lace butterflyThe most fruitful for the Balakhna museum became 2008: January 18, opened a new branch - the "Museum of Lace";in the museum becomes a member of Galina A. Kotova;in the museum open a creative workshop of lace "Balakhna's ornaments".

"The Museum of Lace" is located in a two-story brick building built in the 1990s. The first room contains lace the second half of XIX - early XX centuries.: Scarves, shawls, scarves, sweaters, successfully entered in the interior of the merchant's room. Visitors will certainly surprise the prevalence of black, the most popular among urban womans dwellers. The second room - the peasant way of life and dimensional lace on clothing, towels, bedding. A special place in the museum devoted to lace the Soviet era.

It should be noted that since joining the museum Galina A. Kotov conservation and promotion of lace increased significantly. We hope that our collection and in the future will increase.

Balakhna's lace is a unique facility and tourist display in the XXI century, as well as two hundred years ago, continues to be a calling card of Balakhna.

Creative Workshop of lace "Balakhna ornaments" under the guidance of the master of lace, a member of Artists Union of Russia Galina Kotova invites young people to learn the basics of lace-making.

 

Administrator of site www.balamus.ru

P.S.: Sorry for my English. I would appreciate if you make the correct text. My email address is Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

This article in Russian:
http://www.balamus.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=115:muskruz&catid=25:fili&Itemid=56